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5. Identifying Situations That May Cause the Infant to Signal Discomfort/distress: These situations need investigation. Crying is the infant's signal for help. The following are sources of distress to be checked if the infant cries.

a. Hunger

1) Determine time since the last feeding. Newborns feed usually every 3 to 4 hours, some even 2 to 3 hours. Do not wake a sleeping infant.
2) Check rooting and sucking reflexes with clean fingers. Hungry infants will quickly respond.
NewBorn Care
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b. Soiled diapers
If diaper is wet or soiled, gather equipment necessary for diaper change. Have the baby in a protected area such as the crib, cradle, or an adult's arms.
1) Wash your hands.
2) Use a warm washcloth or premoistened baby wipes, whichever you prefer.
3) You will need a diaper.
4) Use of ointment (e.g., A&D ointment). Always check the label for proper use before applying to the baby.
5) If cloth diapers are used, only use diaper pins with safety heads.
6) If disposable diapers are used, the side with the sticky tabs is placed under the baby's back.
7) Lay the baby on a flat surface.
8) Keep your hand on the baby at all times.
9) Remove the soiled diaper.
10) Wipe away soil with a cloth.
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11) Clean the baby's skin gently but thoroughly.

12) Pay special attention to skin folds and creases when cleaning, drying, and applying ointments.

Wipe soil away from the genital area toward the anal region (front to back).
Put on the clean diaper and fold the diaper so as not to cover the umbilical area.
Provide care for umbilicus (navel).
Provide safe place for infant.
Clean up the diaper-changing area.
Rinse soiled diapers in toilet. Cloth diapers should be placed in the diaper pail or disposed of in waste. Never flush in toilet.

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